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Summary Tables

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The Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT). LTCCS is the first-ever national study to attempt to determine the critical events and associated factors that contribute to serious large truck crashes so agencies within DOT and others can implement effective countermeasures to reduce the occurrence and severity of these crashes.

For further information about the study please see the Study Methodology and database User’s Manual.

An introduction to the study results are provided in the following summary tables. The tables have been organized into two categories representing "Un-weighted" and "Weighted" results, with the specifics detailed below.

Notes:
  1. Throughout the study materials and the summary tables, "truck" refers to a vehicle designed, used, or maintained primarily for carrying property, with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of more than 10,000 lbs.
  2. In the summary tables:
    • Percentages are rounded to the nearest whole number with values less than .5 percent rounded to zero.
    • Totals and sub-totals are summed using unrounded estimates; therefore they may not appear to equal the sum of the relevant variables.

Un-weighted Data

(Source: Large Truck Crash Causation Study (October 2005) - Un-weighted Data)

The tables in the "Un-weighted Data" section provide the actual study results for the table’s subject area.

Table 1: Crashes by Vehicle Count

This table shows the number of crashes in the study sample cases by the total number of vehicles involved in each crash.

Vehicle Count Crash Count Percentage
One 241 25%
Two 488 51%
Three or More 234 24%
Total 963 100%


Table 2: Crashes by Severity Level

This table shows the number of crashes in the study sample cases by the highest injury severity level of any individual involved in the crash.

Crash Severity Crash Count Percentage
K − Fatal 221 23%
A − Incapacitating injury 277 29%
B − Non-incapacitating injury 465 48%
Total 963 100%


Table 3: Crashes by Roadway Type

This table shows the number of crashes in the study sample cases by type of roadway on which the crash occurred. For crashes involving multiple roadway types, e.g. intersections, the roadway type is determined from the perspective of the vehicle associated with the critical reason for the crash. The critical reason is the reason for the critical event.

Roadway Type Crash Count Percentage
Rural 350 36%
Principal arterial − Interstate
109 11%
Principal arterial − other
78 8%
Minor arterial
62 6%
Major collector
26 3%
Minor collector
31 3%
Local
37 4%
Unknown
7 1%
Urban 609 63%
Principal arterial − Interstate
344 36%
Principal arterial − Freeways and Expressways
63 7%
Principal arterial − other
78 8%
Minor arterial
44 5%
Collector
22 2%
Local
58 6%
Unknown 4 0%
Total 963 100%


Table 4: Crashes by Crash Type

This table shows the number of crashes in the study sample cases by crash type, e.g. rear-end, head-on, etc. Crash type is determined from the perspective of the truck. The crash type of crashes involving two or more trucks is determined from the perspective of the truck assigned the critical reason.

Crash Type Crash Count Percentage
Rear-end 231 24%
Roadside Departure 158 16%
Sideswipe, Same Direction 111 12%
Turn Across or Into Path 94 10%
Intersecting Vehicles, Straight 64 7%
Rollover 61 6%
Hit Object in Road 43 5%
Sideswipe, Opposite Direction 42 4%
Head-on 34 4%
No Impact − includes incidents such as fire or immersion. 12 1%
Backing 7 1%
Other − principally trucks not involved in first harmful event, or cargo spills 106 11%
Total 963 100%


Table 5: All Trucks by Vehicle Configuration

This table shows the number of trucks in the study sample cases grouped by truck configuration.

Vehicle Configuration Number Percentage
Single Unit Trucks
Two Axles
124 11%
Three Axles or more
157 14%
Axles Unknown
2 0%
Combination Trucks
Truck Tractor − Bobtail
29 3%
Truck pulling Trailer(s)
40 4%
Tractor pulling Trailer
697 62%
Tractor pulling Two Trailers
54 5%
Other/Unknown/Missing
Other/Unknown/Missing
20 2%
Total 1,123 100%

Table 6: All Trucks by Cargo Body Type

This table shows the number of trucks in the study sample cases by type of truck cargo body.

Cargo Body Type Crash Count Percentage
Van 515 46%
Closed van
383 34%
Refrigerated van
105 9%
Open top van
27 2%
Dump 184 16%
Dump (rear)
164 15%
Bottom dump/hopper bottom
20 2%
Flatbed 163 15%
Flatbed
122 11%
Flatbed with sides
21 2%
Low boy
11 1%
Flatbed with equipment
9 1%
Tank 71 6%
Tank-liquid
56 5%
Tank-dry bulk
14 1%
Tank-compressed gas
1 0%
Other 190 17%
Garbage/refuse
44 4%
Cement mixer
24 2%
Pole/logging
12 1%
Auto carrier
6 1%
Livestock carrier
5 0%
Other − includes tow trucks, etc.
49 4%
Bobtail Unit − no cargo body
28 3%
Not Inspected/Unknown
22 2%
Total 1,123 100%

Table 7: All Trucks by Pre-Crash Movement

This table shows the number of trucks in the study sample cases by pre-crash movement of each truck.

PreCrash Movement Number Percentage
Traveling in Lane 803 72%
Going Straight at steady speed
609 54%
Stopped in traffic lane
109 10%
Decelerating in traffic lane
59 5%
Accelerating in traffic lane
19 2%
Starting in traffic lane
7 1%
Negotiating a Curve 168 15%
Turning 35 3%
Turning left
19 2%
Turning right
15 1%
Making a U-turn
1 0%
Other 117 10%
Successful avoidance maneuver to a previous critical event
40 4%
Changing lanes
33 3%
Passing or overtaking another vehicle
12 1%
Merging
7 1%
Backing up (other than for parking position)
6 1%
Disabled or parked in travel lane
1 0%
No driver present1
11 1%
Other
6 1%
Unknown
1 0%
Total 1,123 100%
Notes: 1 Examples of "No driver present" include:
  1. A driver outside his disabled truck which was then struck from behind,
  2. A driver outside his truck which had previously suffered a rollover and was then struck in the undercarriage by a passenger vehicle,
  3. A driverless truck being towed counted as one of the vehicles in the crash.


Table 8: All Trucks by Critical Pre-Crash Event

This table shows the number of trucks in the study sample cases by critical pre-crash event. The critical pre-crash event is the event which made the crash unavoidable.

Critical Pre-Crash Event Number Percentage
Vehicle Loss-of-Control Due to: 145 13%
Blow out/flat tire
7 1%
Disabling vehicle failure (e.g. wheel fell off)
7 1%
Non-disabling vehicle problem (e.g. hood flew up)
5 0%
Poor road conditions (Puddle, pot hole, ice, etc.)
5 0%
Traveling too fast for conditions
86 8%
Jackknife Event
12 1%
Cargo Shift
13 1%
Other cause of control loss
10 1%
Vehicle Traveling: 239 21%
Over the lane line on left side of travel lane
43 4%
Over the lane line on right side of travel lane
30 3%
Off the edge of the road on the left side
28 3%
Off the edge of the road on the right side
60 5%
End departure
1 0%
Turning left at intersection
28 3%
Turning right at intersection
19 2%
Crossing over (passing through) intersection
26 2%
This vehicle decelerating
4 0%
Other Motor Vehicle in Lane: 283 25%
Other vehicle stopped
68 6%
Traveling in same direction with low steady speed
29 3%
Traveling in same direction while decelerating
49 4%
Traveling in same direction with higher speed
123 11%
Traveling in opposite direction
13 1%
In crossover
1 0%
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching into Lane From: 233 21%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over left lane line
43 4%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over right lane line
53 5%
Opposite direction − over left lane line
70 6%
Opposite direction − over right lane line
1 0%
Crossing street − turning into same direction
1 0%
Crossing street − across path
46 4%
Crossing street − turning into opposite direction
15 1%
Driveway − turning into same direction
1 0%
Driveway − across path
1 0%
Driveway − turning into opposite direction
2 0%
Pedestrian, Pedalcyclist, or other NonMotorist: 31 3%
Pedestrian in roadway
24 2%
Pedestrian approaching roadway
1 0%
Pedalcyclist or other nonmotorist in roadway
6 1%
Object or Animal: 5 0%
Animal in roadway
1 0%
Object in roadway
4 0%
Other: 187 17%
Not involved first harmful event1
163 15%
Other
24 2%
Total 1,123 100%
Notes: 1 Cases categorized as "Not involved first harmful event" are those in which the truck was not involved in the first harmful event in the crash sequence. The term First Harmful Event refers to the first event of the crash to cause damage or injury.

Weighted Data

††(Source: Large Truck Crash Causation Study (October 2005) - Weighted Data)

During the three-year study period of the project, FMCSA estimated that there were approximately 141,000 large trucks involved in fatal, incapacitating, and non-incapacitating injury crashes. Each of the 963 LTCCS study cases was assigned a sampling weight (based on the probability of selection into the sample for the site associated with the case) that allows for national estimates of total truck crashes, broken down by various characteristics for these 141,000 trucks.

The summary tables in the following section illustrate the weighted results for the subject areas presented. The estimates presented may differ from true values because they are based on a probability sample of crashes and not a census of all crashes. The size of these differences may vary depending on which sample of the crashes is the focus of each particular table and analysis.

Notes:
  1. Percentages are rounded to the nearest whole number with values less than .5 percent rounded to zero.
  2. Totals and sub-totals are summed using unrounded estimates; therefore they may not appear to equal the sum of the relevant variables.
  3. Weighted data numbers are rounded to the nearest 1000.


Table 9: All Trucks by Crash Type

This table gives the weighted number of vehicles in study sample cases by crash configuration. In determining crash configuration crashes are first categorized by Vehicle Count – one vehicle, two vehicles, or three or more vehicles.

The term Passenger Vehicle refers to automobiles, pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The term Other includes buses, motorcycles, and construction equipment other than trucks. For crashes involving three or more vehicles, the crash configurations are determined by the first two vehicles to collide.

Crash Configuration Other includes all trucks not involved in the initial collision. ††

Vehicle Count Critical Pre-Crash Event Number Percentage
1 Truck Only 38,000 27%
2 Truck-Passenger Vehicle 50,000 35%
2 Truck-Truck 14,000 10%
2 Truck-Other Vehicle 1,000 1%
3+ Truck-Passenger Vehicle 15,000 11%
3+ Truck-Truck 8,000 6%
3+ Truck-Other Vehicle *** 0%
3+ Other 15,000 11%
Total   141,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.


Table 10: All Trucks by Driver Age

This table shows the estimated number of trucks involved in study sample cases nation-wide by age of driver. ††

Age Category Number Percentage
16 – 20 1,000 1%
21 – 24 6,000 4%
25 – 29 13,000 9%
30 – 34 17,000 12%
35 – 39 19,000 14%
40 – 44 19,000 13%
45 – 49 26,000 19%
50 – 54 17,000 12%
55 – 59 9,000 7%
60 – 64 5,000 3%
65 – 69 4,000 3%
Seventy or Older 1,000 1%
Age Unknown 4,000 3%
Total 141,000 100%


Table 11: All Trucks by Critical Pre-Crash Event

This table shows the estimated number of trucks involved in crashes nation-wide. Counts of trucks are organized by the critical pre-crash event. The critical pre-crash event is the event which made the crash unavoidable. ††

Critical Pre-Crash Event Number Percentage
Vehicle Loss-of-Control Due to: 22,000 16%
Blow out/flat tire, (specify blow out/flat, location/make)
1,000 1%
Disabling vehicle failure (e.g., wheel fell off)
1,000 1%
Non-disabling vehicle problem (e.g., hood flew up)
*** 0%
Poor road conditions (Puddle, pot hole, ice, etc.)
*** 0%
Traveling too fast for conditions
14,000 10%
Jackknife Event
1,000 1%
Cargo Shift
2,000 2%
Other cause of control loss
1,000 1%
Vehicle Traveling: 35,000 25%
Over the lane line on left side of travel lane
5,000 4%
Over the lane line on right side of travel lane
5,000 4%
Off the edge of the road on the left side
6,000 4%
Off the edge of the road on the right side
9,000 7%
End departure
*** 0%
Turning left at intersection
3,000 2%
Turning right at intersection
2,000 1%
Crossing over (passing through) intersection
5,000 4%
This vehicle decelerating
1,000 0%
Other Motor Vehicle in Lane: 35,000 25%
Other vehicle stopped
8,000 6%
Traveling in same direction with low steady speed
3,000 2%
Traveling in same direction while decelerating
6,000 4%
Traveling in same direction with higher speed
13,000 9%
Traveling in opposite direction
4,000 3%
In crossover
*** 0%
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching into Lane From: 24,000 17%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over left lane line
5,000 4%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over right lane line
7,000 5%
Opposite direction − over left lane line
6,000 4%
Opposite direction − over right lane line
*** 0%
Crossing street − turning into same direction
*** 0%
Crossing street − across path
4,000 3%
Crossing street − turning into opposite direction
2,000 1%
Driveway − turning into same direction
*** 0%
Driveway − across path
*** 0%
Driveway − turning into opposite direction
*** 0%
Pedestrian, Pedalcyclist, or other NonMotorist: 2,000 2%
Pedestrian in roadway
1,000 1%
Pedestrian approaching roadway
*** 0%
Pedalcyclist or other nonmotorist in roadway
1,000 0%
Object or Animal: 1,000 1%
Animal in roadway
*** 0%
Object in roadway
1,000 0%
Other: 22,000 15%
Not involved first harmful event1
20,000 14%
Other
2,000 1%
Total 141,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.

1 Cases categorized as "Not involved first harmful event" are those in which the truck was not involved in the first harmful event in the crash sequence. The term First Harmful Event refers to the first event of the crash to cause damage or injury.


Table 12: All Trucks by Critical Pre-Crash Event - Trucks Assigned Critical Reason

This table shows the estimated number of trucks involved in crashes nation-wide, in which the truck was assigned the critical reason for the crash. Counts of trucks are organized by the critical pre-crash event. The critical pre-crash event is the event which made the crash unavoidable. ††

Critical Pre-Crash Event Number Percentage
Vehicle Loss-of-Control Due to: 22,000 28%
Blow out/flat tire, (specify blow out/flat, location/make)
1,000 1%
Disabling vehicle failure (e.g., wheel fell off)
1,000 2%
Non-disabling vehicle problem (e.g. hood flew up)
*** 0%
Poor road conditions (Puddle, pot hole, ice, etc.)
*** 0%
Traveling too fast for conditions
14,000 18%
Jackknife Event
1,000 2%
Cargo Shift
2,000 3%
Other cause of control loss
1,000 2%
Vehicle Traveling: 33,000 43%
Over the lane line on left side of travel lane
5,000 7%
Over the lane line on right side of travel lane
5,000 6%
Off the edge of the road on the left side
6,000 7%
Off the edge of the road on the right side
9,000 12%
End departure
*** 0%
Turning left at intersection
2,000 3%
Turning right at intersection
1,000 1%
Crossing over (passing through) intersection
5,000 6%
This vehicle decelerating
*** 0%
Other Motor Vehicle in Lane: 17,000 22%
Other vehicle stopped
8,000 11%
Traveling in same direction with low steady speed
3,000 4%
Traveling in same direction while decelerating
5,000 7%
Traveling in same direction with higher speed
*** 0%
Traveling in opposite direction
*** 0%
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching into Lane From: 1,000 1%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over left lane line
1,000 1%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over right lane line
*** 0%
Crossing street − across path
*** 0%
Crossing street − turning into opposite direction
*** 0%
Driveway − turning into opposite direction
*** 0%
Pedestrian, Pedalcyclist, or other NonMotorist: 1,000 2%
Pedestrian in roadway
1,000 1%
Pedalcyclist or other nonmotorist in roadway
1,000 1%
Object or Animal: 1,000 1%
Animal in roadway
*** 0%
Object in roadway
1,000 1%
Other: 2,000 3%
Not involved first harmful event1
*** 1%
Other
2,000 2%
Total 78,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.

1 Cases categorized as "Not involved first harmful event" are those in which the truck was not involved in the first harmful event in the crash sequence. The term First Harmful Event refers to the first damage or injury-producing event in the crash.


Table 13: All Trucks by Critical Reason

This table shows the estimated number of trucks involved in crashes nation-wide, in which the truck was assigned the critical reason for the crash. Counts of trucks are organized by critical reason. ††

Critical Reason Number Percentage
Physical Driver Factor 9,000 12%
Sleep, that is, actually asleep
5,000 7%
Heart attack or other physical impairment of ability to act
3,000 4%
Other critical non-performance
*** 0%
Unknown critical non-performance
*** 1%
Driver Recognition Factor 22,000 29%
Inattention (i.e. daydreaming)
5,000 6%
Internal distraction
3,000 3%
External distraction
2,000 3%
Inadequate surveillance
9,000 12%
Unknown recognition error
4,000 5%
Driver Decision Factor 30,000 38%
Too fast for conditions to be able to respond to unexpected actions of other road users
7,000 9%
Misjudgment of gap or other's speed
2,000 3%
Following too closely to respond to unexpected actions
3,000 4%
False assumption of other road user's actions
1,000 2%
Illegal maneuver
4,000 5%
Inadequate evasive action, e.g. braking only, not braking and Steering
1,000 1%
Aggressive driving behavior
1,000 1%
Too fast for curve/turn
9,000 12%
Other Decision Factors
1,000 1%
Unknown decision error
*** 0%
Driver Performance Factor 4,000 6%
Panic/Freezing
*** 0%
Overcompensation
2,000 3%
Poor directional control, e.g. failing to control vehicle with skill ordinarily expected
2,000 3%
Unknown Driver Error 3,000 4%
Vehicle Related Factor 8,000 10%
Tires/wheels failed
1,000 1%
Brakes failed
1,000 1%
Steering failed
*** 0%
Cargo shifted
3,000 4%
Trailer attachment failed
*** 0%
Suspension failed
1,000 1%
Body, doors, hood failed
*** 0%
Degraded braking capability
2,000 3%
Transmission/engine failure
*** 0%
Other vehicle failure
*** 0%
Environment − Highway 2,000 2%
Signs/signals missing
1,000 1%
Road design − roadway geometry (e.g. ramp curvature)
*** 0%
Road design − Other
*** 1%
Slick roads (low friction road surface due to ice, loose debris, any other cause)
*** 1%
Environment − Weather *** 0%
Fog
*** 0%
Wind gust
*** 0%
Glare
*** 0%
Unknown reason for critical event *** 0%
Total 78,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.


Table 14: All Trucks by Associated Factors

This table shows the estimated number of trucks involved in crashes nation-wide by specific factors associated with the particular crash in which that truck was involved. ††

Associated Factor Number Percentage
Driver
Prescription Drug Use
37,000 26%
Traveling Too Fast For Conditions
33,000 23%
Unfamiliar with Roadway
31,000 22%
Over-the-Counter Drug Use
25,000 18%
Inadequate Surveillance
20,000 14%
Fatigue
18,000 13%
Illegal Maneuver
13,000 9%
Inattention
12,000 9%
Exterior Distraction
11,000 8%
Inadequate Evasive Action
9,000 7%
Aggressive Driving Behavior
9,000 7%
Unfamiliar with Vehicle
9,000 7%
Following Too Closely
7,000 5%
False Assumption of Others’ Actions
7,000 5%
Under Pressure to Accept Additional Loads
6,000 4%
Conversation
5,000 4%
Under Pressure to Operate Even If Fatigued
4,000 3%
Misjudgment of Gap Distance
4,000 3%
In a Hurry Prior to Crash
4,000 3%
Illness
4,000 3%
Interior Distraction
3,000 2%
Illegal Drug Use
3,000 2%
Uncomfortable with Some Aspect of Vehicle or Load
4,000 3%
Self Induced Legal Work Pressure
3,000 2%
Required to Accept Short Notice Trips
3,000 2%
Work Schedule Pressure
3,000 2%
Upset Prior to Crash
3,000 2%
Alcohol Use
1,000 1%
Other Decision Factors − includes proceeding with obstructed view, stopping when not required to, and failing to yield, as well as others
13,000 9%
Other Physical Factors − includes hearing problems, prosthesis, paraplegia, strenuous activities, sleep apnea, as well as others
11,000 8%
Other Motor Carrier Work Pressure
9,000 6%
Other Recognition Factors − includes impending problem masked by traffic flow pattern, driver focused on extraneous vehicle, and other recognition error
4,000 3%
Other Emotional Factors − includes clinical depression
1,000 1%
Vehicle
Brake Deficiency
37,000 26%
Tire Deficiency
7,000 5%
Jackknife Event
7,000 5%
Overweight
7,000 5%
Cargo Shift
6,000 4%
Light Failure
5,000 3%
Brake Failure
5,000 3%
Cargo Securement
4,000 3%
Vehicle View Obstruction − includes obstruction related to load, vehicle design, or other factor
2,000 1%
Engine, Fuel System, or Exhaust Deficiency
2,000 1%
Transmission Failure
1,000 1%
Tire Failure
1,000 1%
Reflective Tape Missing/Obscured
1,000 1%
All Other Defects − includes suspension frame deficiency, and towing unit problem
5,000 4%
Environment
Traffic Flow Interruption − includes work zones, roadway immersion, prior crash, and traffic congestion
40,000 28%
Roadway Related Factors
29,000 20%
Stop Required Prior to Crash − includes stop required for traffic control device, and yield right of way requirement
28,000 20%
Weather Related Factors
20,000 14%
Sight Obstructed by Road/Other Vehicle
6,000 4%
Other Traffic/Vehicle Factors − includes any factors not listed causing the driver to feel uncomfortable with surrounding traffic or the vehicle
7,000 5%
Other Vehicle Obscured (by Glare/Headlights, etc)
2,000 2%
Other Environmental Factors
1,000 0%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.


Table 15: Trucks and Passenger Vehicles by Critical Pre-Crash Event - Vehicles Assigned Critical Reason

This table shows the estimated number of trucks and passenger vehicles involved in crashes nation-wide in which the truck or passenger vehicle was assigned the critical reason. Counts of vehicles are organized by critical pre-crash event. The critical pre-crash event is the event which made the crash unavoidable. ††

Critical Pre-Crash Event Truck Passenger Vehicle
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Vehicle Loss-of-Control Due to: 3,000 10% 6,000 16%
Blow out/flat tire
*** 1% 1,000 2%
Disabling vehicle failure (e.g. wheel fell off)
*** 0% 0 0%
Non-disabling vehicle problem (e.g. hood flew up)
*** 0% 0 0%
Poor road conditions (Puddle, pot hole, ice, etc.)
*** 0% *** 1%
Traveling too fast for conditions
2,000 7% 2,000 6%
Jackknife Event
1,000 2% 0 0%
Other cause of control loss
*** 0% 2,000 5%
Unknown cause of control loss
0 0% 1,000 2%
Vehicle Traveling: 13,000 46% 21,000 58%
Over the lane line on left side of travel lane
4,000 13% 10,000 27%
Over the lane line on right side of travel lane
3,000 11% 2,000 4%
Off the edge of the road on the left side
*** 0% 2,000 5%
Off the edge of the road on the right side
*** 1% 1,000 2%
Turning left at intersection
2,000 6% 4,000 10%
Turning right at intersection
1,000 3% *** 1%
Crossing over (passing through) intersection
3,000 12% 3,000 9%
This vehicle decelerating
*** 0% *** 0%
Other Motor Vehicle in Lane: 11,000 38% 8,000 23%
Other vehicle stopped
7,000 24% 3,000 7%
Traveling in same direction with low steady speed
1,000 3% 3,000 9%
Traveling in same direction while decelerating
3,000 10% 2,000 5%
Traveling in same direction with higher speed
*** 0% 1,000 2%
Traveling in opposite direction
*** 1% *** 0%
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching into Lane From: *** 2% 1,000 2%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over left lane line
0 0% *** 0%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over right lane line
*** 0% 0 0%
Opposite direction − over left lane line
0 0% *** 1%
Crossing street, turning into same direction
0 0% *** 1%
Crossing street, across path
*** 0% 0 0%
Crossing street, turning into opposite direction
*** 1% 0 0%
Driveway, across path
0 0% *** 0%
Driveway, turning into opposite direction
*** 1% *** 0%
Object or Animal: 0 0% *** 0%
Object in roadway
0 0% *** 0%
Other: 1,000 5% 1,000 2%
Not involved first harmful event1
*** 0% 0 0%
Other
1,000 4% 1,000 2%
Total 29,000 100% 37,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.

1 Cases categorized as "Not involved first harmful event" are those in which the truck was not involved in the first harmful event in the crash sequence. The term First Harmful Event refers to the first event of the crash to cause damage or injury.


Table 16: Trucks and Passenger Vehicles by Critical Reason

This table shows the estimated number of trucks and passenger vehicles involved in crashes nation-wide in which the truck or passenger vehicle was assigned the critical reason. Counts of vehicles are organized by critical reason. ††

This table shows the estimated number of trucks and passenger vehicles involved in crashes nation-wide in which the truck or passenger vehicle was assigned the critical reason for the crash and grouped by critical reason. All numbers for weighted data are rounded to the nearest 1000. Percentages are calculated to unrounded estimates. Totals and sub-totals are summed using unrounded estimates; therefore they may not appear to equal the sum of the relevant variables.

Critical Reason Truck Passenger Vehicle
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Physical Driver Factor 1,000 3% 6,000 16%
Sleep, that is, actually asleep
*** 0% 4,000 10%
Heart attack or other physical impairment of ability to act
1,000 3% 2,000 6%
Other critical non-performance
*** 0% 0 0%
Unknown critical non-performance
0 0% *** 0%
Driver Recognition Factor 10,000 35% 11,000 30%
Inattention (i.e. daydreaming)
2,000 7% 2,000 4%
Internal distraction
1,000 3% 3,000 9%
External distraction
2,000 6% 1,000 2%
Inadequate surveillance
5,000 19% 4,000 11%
Other recognition error
0 0% *** 1%
Unknown recognition error
*** 1% 1,000 4%
Driver Decision Factor 12,000 43% 9,000 24%
Too fast for conditions to be able to respond to unexpected actions of other road users
4,000 13% 3,000 7%
Too slow for traffic stream
0 0% *** 0%
Misjudgment of gap or other's speed
1,000 5% 2,000 4%
Following too closely to respond to unexpected actions
2,000 6% *** 1%
False assumption of other road user's actions
1,000 3% 1,000 2%
Illegal maneuver
3,000 9% 3,000 7%
Inadequate evasive action, e.g. braking only, not braking and steering
*** 1% *** 0%
Aggressive driving behavior
*** 0% *** 1%
Too fast for curve/turn
1,000 3% *** 0%
Other Decision Factors
1,000 2% *** 0%
Unknown decision error
0 0% *** 0%
Driver Performance Factor 1,000 3% 3,000 8%
Panic/Freezing
*** 0% 0 0%
Overcompensation
*** 1% 2,000 6%
Poor directional control, e.g. failing to control vehicle with skill ordinarily expected
*** 2% 1,000 3%
Unknown performance error
0 0% *** 0%
Unknown Driver Error 1,000 4% 3,000 10%
Vehicle Related Factor 2,000 8% 2,000 4%
Tires/wheels failed
*** 1% 1,000 2%
Brakes failed
*** 1% *** 0%
Cargo shifted
*** 1% 0 0%
Trailer attachment failed
*** 0% 0 0%
Degraded braking capability
2,000 5% 0 0%
Transmission/engine failure
0 0% *** 0%
Other vehicle failure
0 0% *** 1%
Unknown vehicle failures
0 0% *** 0%
Environment - Highway 1,000 3% *** 1%
Signs/signals missing
1,000 3% 0 0%
View obstructed by other vehicles
0 0% *** 0%
Slick roads (low friction road surface due to ice, loose debris, any other cause)
*** 1% *** 1%
Environment - Weather *** 0% 1,000 2%
Wind gust
0 0% *** 0%
Glare
*** 0% 1,000 1%
Unknown reason for critical event *** 0% 2,000 4%
Total 29,000 100% 37,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.


Table 17: Trucks and Passenger Vehicles by Associated Factors

This table shows the estimated number of trucks and passenger vehicles involved in crashes nation-wide by specific factors associated with the particular crash. ††

Associated Factor Truck Passenger Vehicle
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Driver
Prescription Drug Use
19,000 29% 23,000 35%
Over-the-Counter Drug Use
13,000 20% 7,000 11%
Unfamiliar with Roadway
13,000 19% 6,000 10%
Inadequate Surveillance
11,000 16% 9,000 14%
Traveling Too Fast For Conditions
10,000 15% 7,000 11%
Illegal Maneuver
8,000 12% 9,000 13%
Inattention
6,000 9% 6,000 9%
Exterior Distraction
5,000 8% 4,000 6%
Fatigue
5,000 7% 10,000 15%
Inadequate Evasive Action
4,000 7% 5,000 7%
False Assumption of Others Actions
4,000 6% 2,000 3%
Unfamiliar with Vehicle
4,000 5% 2,000 2%
Following Too Closely
3,000 5% 1,000 1%
Aggressive Driving Behavior
3,000 5% 6,000 9%
Misjudgment of Gap Distance
3,000 4% 2,000 4%
Self Induced Legal Work Pressure
2,000 4% 1,000 1%
Under Pressure to Accept Additional Loads
2,000 4% 0 0%
Required to Accept Short Notice Trips
2,000 3% 0 0%
Interior Distraction
2,000 2% 3,000 5%
Driver Upset Prior to Crash
1,000 2% 3,000 5%
Driver in a Hurry Prior to Crash
1,000 2% 3,000 4%
Under Pressure to Operate Even If Fatigued
1,000 2% 0 0%
Conversation
1,000 2% 2,000 3%
Illness
1,000 1% 5,000 8%
Illegal Drug Use
*** 0% 4,000 7%
Alcohol Use
*** 0% 6,000 9%
Other Physical Factors − includes hearing problems, prosthesis, paraplegia, strenuous activities, sleep apnea, as well as others
6,000 9% 6,000 8%
Other Motor Carrier Work Pressure
5,000 7% *** 0%
Other Decision Factors − includes proceeding with obstructed view, stopping when not required to, and failing to yield, as well as others
4,000 6% 5,000 8%
Other Recognition Factors − includes impending problem masked by traffic flow pattern, driver focused on extraneous vehicle, and other recognition error
3,000 4% 2,000 3%
Other Emotional Factors − includes clinical depression
1,000 1% 3,000 5%
Vehicle
Brake Deficiency
16,000 25% 1,000 2%
Tire Deficiency
4,000 6% 1,000 2%
Overweight
3,000 5% *** 0%
Light Deficiency
3,000 5% 1,000 1%
Jackknife Event
2,000 4% 0 0%
Vehicle View Obstruction − includes obstruction related to load, vehicle design, or other factor
2,000 3% 1,000 1%
Brake Failure
1,000 1% *** 2%
Engine, Fuel System, or Exhaust Deficiency
1,000 2% *** 0%
Reflective Tape Missing/Obscured
1,000 1% 0 0%
Transmission Failure
*** 1% 1,000 1%
Cargo Securement
*** 1% *** 0%
Cargo Shift
*** 1% 0 0%
Tire Failure
*** 0% 1,000 1%
All Other Defects − includes suspension frame deficiency, and towing unit problem
2,000 2% 1,000 1%
Environment
Traffic Flow Interruption − includes work zones, roadway immersion, prior crash, and traffic congestion.
16,000 24% 16,000 25%
Stop Required Prior to Crash − includes stop required for traffic control device, and yield right of way requirement.
14,000 21% 16,000 25%
Roadway Related Factors
11,000 16% 10,000 16%
Weather Related Factors
9,000 14% 9,000 14%
Sight Obstructed by Road/Other Vehicle
5,000 7% 3,000 5%
Other Traffic/Vehicle Factors − includes any factors not listed causing the driver to feel uncomfortable with surrounding traffic or the vehicle
2,000 4% 2,000 3%
Other Vehicle Obscured (by Glare/Headlights, etc)
2,000 3% 1,000 2%
Other Environmental Factors
*** 1% 1,000 1%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.


Table 18: Trucks in One-Vehicle Crashes by Critical Pre-Crash Event − Trucks Assigned Critical Reason

This table shows the estimated number of trucks nation-wide involved in one-vehicle crashes in which the truck was assigned the critical reason. Counts of trucks are organized by critical pre-crash event. The critical pre-crash event is the event which made the crash unavoidable. ††

Critical Pre-Crash Event Number Percentage
Vehicle Loss-of-Control Due to: 18,000 49%
Blow out/flat tire
*** 1%
Disabling vehicle failure (e.g. wheel fell off)
1,000 3%
Non-disabling vehicle problem (e.g. hood flew up)
*** 1%
Poor road conditions (Puddle, pot hole, ice, etc.)
*** 1%
Traveling too fast for conditions
12,000 33%
Jackknife Event
*** 1%
Cargo Shift
2,000 6%
Other cause of control loss
1,000 3%
Vehicle Traveling: 16,000 42%
Over the lane line on left side of travel lane
*** 1%
Over the lane line on right side of travel lane
*** 1%
Off the edge of the road on the left side
5,000 15%
Off the edge of the road on the right side
9,000 24%
End departure
*** 0%
Turning left at intersection
*** 1%
Turning right at intersection
*** 1%
Other Motor Vehicle in Lane: 1,000 2%
Traveling in same direction while decelerating
1,000 2%
Other Motor Vehicle Encroaching into Lane From: *** 1%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over left lane line
*** 1%
Adjacent lane (same direction) − over right lane line
*** 0%
Pedestrian, Pedalcyclist, or other NonMotorist: 1,000 3%
Pedestrian in roadway
*** 1%
Pedalcyclist or other nonmotorist in roadway
1,000 2%
Object or Animal: 1,000 2%
Animal in roadway
*** 1%
Object in roadway
*** 1%
Other: 1,000 2%
Other
1,000 2%
Total 37,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.


Table 19: Trucks in One-Vehicle Crashes by Critical Reason

This table shows the estimated number of trucks nation-wide involved in one-vehicle crashes by critical reason ††

Critical Reason Number Percentage
Physical Driver Factor: 8,000 21%
Sleep, that is, actually asleep
5,000 13%
Heart attack or other physical impairment of ability to act
2,000 6%
Other critical non-performance
*** 0%
Unknown critical non-performance
*** 1%
Driver Recognition Factor 6,000 17%
Inattention (i.e. daydreaming)
2,000 6%
Internal distraction
1,000 4%
External distraction
*** 1%
Inadequate surveillance
1,000 4%
Unknown recognition error
1,000 3%
Driver Decision Factor 13,000 34%
Too fast for conditions to be able to respond to unexpected actions of other road users
2,000 7%
Misjudgment of gap or other's speed
*** 0%
Following too closely to respond to unexpected actions
*** 0%
Illegal maneuver
*** 0%
Aggressive driving behavior
1,000 2%
Too fast for curve/turn
9,000 23%
Other Decision Factors
*** 1%
Driver Performance Factor 3,000 9%
Overcompensation
2,000 4%
Poor directional control, e.g. failing to control vehicle with skill ordinarily expected
2,000 4%
Unknown Driver Error 1,000 4%
Vehicle Related Factor 5,000 13%
Tires/wheels failed
*** 1%
Brakes failed
*** 1%
Steering failed
*** 0%
Cargo shifted
3,000 7%
Suspension failed
1,000 2%
Degraded braking capability
1,000 2%
Environment − Highway 1,000 2%
Road design − roadway geometry (e.g. ramp curvature)
*** 0%
Road design − other
*** 1%
Slick roads (low friction road surface due to ice, loose debris, any other cause)
*** 1%
Environment − Weather *** 0%
Wind gust
*** 0%
Unknown reason for critical event *** 0%
Total 37,000 100%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.


Table 20: Trucks in One-Vehicle Crashes by Associated Factors

This table shows the estimated number of trucks nation-wide involved in one-vehicle crashes by specific associated factor. ††

Associated Factor Number Percentage
Driver
Traveling Too Fast For Conditions
18,000 48%
Unfamiliar with Roadway
11,000 30%
Driver Fatigue
11,000 28%
Prescription Drug Use
10,000 25%
Over-the-Counter Drug Use
7,000 18%
Inattention
5,000 12%
Inadequate Surveillance
4,000 10%
External Distraction
4,000 10%
Aggressive Driving Behavior
4,000 9%
Inadequate Evasive Action
3,000 8%
Illness
3,000 8%
Conversation
3,000 8%
Uncomfortable with Some Aspect of Vehicle or Load
3,000 7%
Under Pressure to Operate Even If Fatigued
2,000 7%
Under Pressure to Accept additional Loads
2,000 7%
Unfamiliar with Vehicle
2,000 7%
In a Hurry Prior to Crash
2,000 6%
Illegal Drug Use
2,000 6%
Work Schedule Pressure
2,000 4%
Illegal Maneuver
2,000 4%
Upset Prior to Crash
1,000 4%
Interior Distraction
1,000 3%
New Position
1,000 3%
Alcohol Use
1,000 2%
Self Induced Legal Work Pressure
1,000 2%
Required to Accept Short Notice Trips
1,000 2%
Pressure to Accept Loads with Little or No Notice
1,000 2%
Following Too Closely
1,000 2%
Misjudgment of Gap Distance
*** 1%
False Assumption of Others Actions
*** 0%
Other Decision Factors − includes proceeding with obstructed view, stopping when not required to, and failing to yield, as well as others
7,000 18%
Other Physical Factors − includes hearing problems, prosthesis, paraplegia, strenuous activities, and sleep apnea
3,000 9%
Other Motor Carrier Work Pressure
4,000 5%
Other Recognition Factors − includes impending problem masked by traffic flow pattern, driver focused on extraneous vehicle, and other recognition error
1,000 2%
Other Emotional Factors − includes clinical depression
*** 1%
Vehicle
Brake Deficiency
15,000 39%
Cargo Shift
5,000 14%
Tire Deficiency
3,000 8%
Jackknife Event
4,000 9%
Cargo Securement
3,000 8%
Overweight
3,000 7%
Brake Failure
2,000 5%
Transmission Failure
1,000 2%
Tire Failure
1,000 2%
Engine, Fuel System, or Exhaust Deficiency
*** 1%
View Obstruction − includes obstruction related to load, vehicle design, or other factor
*** 1%
Light Deficiency
*** 0%
All Other Defects − includes suspension frame deficiency, and towing unit problem
3,000 7%
Environment
Roadway Related Factors
10,000 26%
Weather Related Factors
4,000 11%
Stop Required Prior to Crash − includes stop required for traffic control device, and yield right of way requirement
4,000 10%
Traffic Flow Interruption − includes work zones, roadway immersion, prior crash, and traffic congestion
3,000 7%
Sightline Obstructed
1,000 2%
Other Traffic/Vehicle Factors − includes any factors not listed causing the driver to feel uncomfortable with surrounding traffic or the vehicle
3,000 7%
Other Vehicle Obscured (by glare/headlights, etc)
*** 0%
Other Environmental Factors
*** 0%
Notes: *** Weighted numbers lower than 500 are rounded to zero.
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